Skin Tumours

Benign and malignant tumour of the skin and subcutaneous tissue surgery

In the ‘Kosovac’ clinic, you can preventively or therapeutically remove benign or malignant pigment changes – moles, according to the protocol for surgical treatment of such patients.

Our skin is the largest organ in humans, and as it envelops the whole body it is constantly exposed to the external environment. It is negatively impacted by the harmful effects of the sun, air pollution and physical injuries. Our skin is susceptible to various tumours be they benign or malignant in nature.

Melanoma is a malignant tumour of melanocytes, cells responsible for the creation of melanin. It occurs on the skin, but also on the areas of mucous membrane, nails or eyes. For approximately 30% of skin melanoma sufferers the tumour appears on an already existing mole, and about 70% of patients experience it on areas of skin which has undergone no previous changes. Most commonly they are brown or black in colour, more rarely they appear pigment-free (amelatonic), red or skin-coloured.

Most frequent malignant skin tumours, aside from melanomas, are basal-cell and planocellular carcinoma (epithelium). They appear as red dots, growths or skin wounds. Their malignant potential is significantly less harmful compared to melanomas. Surgical treatment is most commonly the only treatment necessary to cure them.

The procedure is performed under local anaesthetic. Surgical excision (removal) of the totality of the visible tumour, together with an area of healthy skin, is the golden rule in the treatment of skin cancers. Pathohistological analysis of a surgical sample helps establish the final diagnosis.

Benign skin tumours comprise papillomas, dermatofibromas, keratoses and moles (naevus). They are most commonly removed for aesthetic or functional purposes, where sometimes because of their unfortunate location they can easily be injured, irritated and inflamed. Benign skin changes are operated on under local anaesthetic. The operation lasts between fifteen to thirty minutes. There is no post-operative pain and the patient can return to his or her daily activities on the same day.

Lipomas (better known as tumour of fatty tissue) are benign growths which arise as a consequence of accumulation of fatty cells just under the skin. These growths are not cancerous and most commonly do not lead to complications or unpleasant symptoms. At times they can grow in size, in which cases surgical removal is necessary. The intervention is performed under local anaesthetic; its duration depends on the size of the changes. After the intervention there are no particular limitations, the patient can get on with their usual activities.

Atheroma is a benign growth appearing on skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by over-secretion of the sebaceous gland and the forming of a capsule-like shape around the fatty deposit. Most commonly atheromas appear on the face, neck, behind the ears and on the back, although they can form on any other parts of the body also. They differ in size, ranging from five millimetres to several centimetres, and are soft to the touch. Atheromas are not painful. It is advised to remove them surgically as soon as they are noticed, in order to prevent them from forming again. The procedure, as in the case of lipomas, is carried out under local anaesthetic.

Radio-wave Excision

Radio-wave surgery is one of the ways to remove growths occurring on the skin or mucous membrane. The passage of high-frequency radio waves through the tissue allows for minimal damage to the surrounding skin structure (much less so than a surgical scalpel), and has the same effect on the desired area. Prior to the intervention the skin is treated with local anaesthetic in the form of ointment, while for bigger changes infiltration anaesthesia is used. The intervention is short and bleeding minimal.

The technique of removing changes on skin through radio-wave excision is used when treating: keratoses, warts, fibromas, papillomas, enlarged capillaries and condylomata.

Ingrown Nails and Toenails

Ingrown nail or toenail refers to a condition in which the edges of the nail plate grow so that they cut into one or both sides of the soft tissue surrounding the nail. Ingrown nails can occur on any digit, most commonly on the big toe. It impedes walking because even the smallest of pressures on the nail plate causes pain.

A permanent solution to this problem is a surgical intervention which removes only a part of the nail matrix, leaving the central part of the nail plate. The intervention is carried out under local anaesthetic. The recovery lasts approximately ten days.

After surgery the same problem cannot re-occur on the finger or the toe which has been operated on.